The short answer is definitely yes. It’s a common practice to divide a dedicated server into two or more VPS. This technique is called virtualization. By definition, server virtualization is the process of dividing a dedicated server into multiple unique and isolated VPS instances by means of a software application. Once virtualization is done, every unique and separate instance can run its own OS and have its own private resources allocated.
Since you want different operating systems to run on different parts you will need to do full virtualization of your server using a Hypervisor.